Natural selection operates at different speeds under different circumstances. Scientists agree that natural selection over long periods of time can produce larger evolutionary change than natural selection can produce in shorter periods, but exactly how much more is a subject of ongoing research.


In its effort to debunk natural selection, Explore Evolution reiterates the debunked claims from the creationist book Icons of Evolution. That book claimed that textbooks misrepresented evolution by incorrectly characterizing certain popular experiments. Explore Evolution repeats the earlier book's arguments, reuses several of that books images without change (or attribution), and does not update its arguments to reflect more recent research.

Artificial and Natural Selection

Explore Evolution begins its discussion of natural selection with a discussion of artificial selection. Artificial selection, in which differential survival and reproduction in animals, plants, or other organisms is driven by the choices of human breeders selecting among natural variations in a population, is treated as an analogy for natural selection, in which differential survival and reproduction of organisms is driven by natural processes acting on natural variation in a population.

Crocodilian Hearts

Crocodilian hearts

Summary of problems:

We gain insight into heart evolution by looking across multiple animal groups. The crocodile heart demonstrates that evolutionary processes are not linear (with distinct steps from 2 to 3 to 4 chambers), but are branching processes, which produces a range of final results from a common ancestral condition. This is exactly the evolutionary prediction. Explore Evolution confuses matters by claiming this transition was difficult, reinforcing a common misconception about evolution.



McCausland, I. 1999. “Anomalies in the History of Relativity.” Journal of Scientific Exploration 13: 271 -290.

Sarkar, S. 2007. Doubting Darwin? Creationist Designs on Evolution . Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

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